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Anti-inflammatory Properties of Anthraquinones and Their Relationship with the Regulation of P-glycoprotein Function and Expression.


Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012 Nov 19;


Authors: Choi RJ, Ngoc TM, Bae K, Cho HJ, Kim DD, Chun J, Khan S, Kim YS


Abstract

There is a growing interest in natural products that potentially have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. In this report, we assessed the effects of anthraquinone derivatives from Rhubarb on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages to determine their anti-inflammatory potential. The derivatives were also tested in Caco-2 cell lines to evaluate the inhibition of the drug efflux function of P-gp. The transport abilities were examined and the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 (R-123) was also measured. Electorphoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to check the activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding affinity. Five anthraquinones were tested to determine their inhibitory activities on NO production and the protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, the level of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was determined in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Emodin was found to be the most potent inhibitor, and it also reduced paw swelling in the mouse model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. In Caco-2 cells, emodin elevated the accumulation of R-123 and decreased the efflux ratio of R-123, which indicates the inhibition of P-gp function. The inhibition of COX-2 protein by emodin paralleled the decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression was decreased through the prevention of AP-1 DNA binding, which leads to downregulation in the expression of P-gp. Our data indicate that the decrease of P-gp expression is caused by the decreased expression of COX-2 through the MAPK/AP-1 pathway. Based on our results, we suggest that anti-inflammatory drugs with COX-2 inhibitory activity might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression.

PMID: 23174748 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]